1892 The Pledge of Allegiance and the salute are devised.

1898 First flag salute in New York State.

1919 Washington is the first state to make the pledge mandatory.

1924 “Of America” is added to the pledge.

1935 Jehovah’s Witnesses refuse to say the pledge.

1940 U.S. Supreme Court rules that public school students may be expelled if they don’t say the pledge.

1942 Congress strikes the extended arm salute and codifies that the pledge be said with the right hand over the heart.

1943 U.S. Supreme Court reverses itself, ruling that students have a constitutional right not to say the pledge.

1954 “Under God” is added to the pledge.

2002 The 9th U.S. Supreme Court of Appeals rules that “Under God” is unconstitutional.

2004 U.S. Supreme Court throws out the 2002 federal court decision.

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